At the molecular level, certain genes are responsible for how the body processes diﬀerent medications, and pharmacogenomics combines our understanding of medication metabolism with genetics. Genetic variations may determine the eﬀectiveness or potential side eﬀects to a speciﬁc medication.
Only a percentage of the patient population will respond to particular drug treatment, and adverse drug reactions are the 4th leading cause of death. This leads to wasted therapy eﬀorts due to the lack of patient response or potentially serious adverse eﬀects. By predicting the outcome of a therapy via genetic testing, patients receive a personalized approach that increases eﬀectiveness and reduces risk of the medication(s).